A GOP-led bill to legalize marijuana in Missouri cleared a second House committee on Tuesday, sending the proposal to the floor with just weeks before the legislative session ends. Meanwhile, a separate activist- and industry-led campaign to put legalization on the ballot is also facing a tight deadline.
Rep. Ron Hicks (R) is sponsoring the “Cannabis Freedom Act,” which advanced out of the House Public Safety Committee on a narrow vote late last month and has now been approved by the Rules – Legislative Oversight Committee in a 6-4 vote.
With the session set to end on May 13, time is of the essence. But Hicks recently said that the timeline remains feasible and he’s “seen bills sail through the process in a week.” The lawmaker said that it “really comes down to whether we have the will to tackle it.”
Beside legalizing possession and sale of cannabis, Hicks’s bill would further provide opportunities for expungements, authorize social consumption facilities and permit cannabis businesses to claim tax deductions with the state.
Advocates wanted to see the bill move through the committee process without revisions to the introduced legislation, but members did end up adopting several amendments in the prior committee before this latest action.
The changes concern licensing caps, regulatory authority over the cannabis market and a proposal described by Hicks as a “poison pill” that imposes restrictions on who would qualify for equity benefits.
Eapen Thampy, a lobbyist with Great State Strategies, told Marijuana Moment that he expects an effort to eliminate the licensing cap provision on the floor.
“I think Missouri General Assembly is aware of the issues of corruption and cronyism that have been a source of a lot of controversy in our medical marijuana program,” he said. “There’s a real interest right now in avoiding that outcome with a recreational program. Missouri Republicans and the Democrats on this issue take a very free market point of view.”
Here’s what the cannabis legislation would accomplish:
Possession, home cultivation and licensing
The bill would allow adults 21 and older to purchase and possess cannabis from licensed retailers. There doesn’t seem to be a possession limit in the measure; it simply does away with existing statutes criminalizing the activity. Adults could also cultivate up to 12 plants for personal use.
The Missouri Department of Health and Human Services would be responsible for regulating the adult-use program, just as it currently does for medical cannabis. Before being amended in the Public Safety Committee last month, the Department of Agriculture, which handles hemp, would have had that regulatory authority.
The department would be required to develop rules to issue temporary and annual licenses for cannabis retailers, growers, processors, transporters and wholesale distributors.
As drafted, there would not have been any cap on the number of licensees that could be approved. But as amended in Public Safety, it would allow double the number of current medical cannabis licensees in the state in order to serve the adult-use market.
Interestingly, the legislation also says that adults could “contract” with a licensed grower to cultivate up to 12 plants on their behalf for personal use and also work with licensed processors to produce marijuana products.
Social equity and consumer protections
Additionally, the measure contains expungement provisions, allowing people with non-violent marijuana convictions over activities made legal under the bill to petition the courts for record clearing. Those currently incarcerated would also be eligible for resentencing, and those on probation or parole would be allowed to use marijuana.
Police would not be allowed to use the odor of marijuana alone to conduct a warrantless search of a person’s private property under the legislation. And cannabis could not be used “as a factor in family court proceedings.”
The bill further stipulates that medical cannabis patient information cannot be shared with federal authorities.
Marijuana Moment is already tracking more than 1,000 cannabis, psychedelics and drug policy bills in state legislatures and Congress this year. Patreon supporters pledging at least $25/month get access to our interactive maps, charts and hearing calendar so they don’t miss any developments.
Learn more about our marijuana bill tracker and become a supporter on Patreon to get access.
As part of the licensing amendment that was adopted in committee last month, language was added to create a loan program to support women- and minority-owned businesses participate in the market. However, a GOP member got a change attached that could undermine Democratic support because it controversially revised the equity provisions to specify that only women who are “biologically” female would be eligible for the benefit.
Taxation, banking and social use
The state Department of Revenue would set a tax rate for adult-use marijuana sales that could not exceed 12 percent. There would be no such tax on medical cannabis products.
Tax dollars that the state generates from the recreational market would be deposited into a “Cannabis Freedom Fund,” with revenue first covering the administrative costs of implementing the marijuana program. Remaining revenue would be “divided equally between teachers’ salaries, first responders’ pensions, and the Missouri veterans commission.”
Licensed marijuana businesses would also be able to make tax deductions with the state up to the amount that they’d otherwise be eligible for under federal law if they were operating in a federally legal industry. Cannabis companies across the country are required to pay federal taxes, but they’re barred from receiving tax benefits.
People who apply for a Missouri cannabis business licenses and pay the application fee could also deduct that cost if they’re ultimately denied licensing.
Hicks’s bill also adopts a provision from a separate cannabis bill that would allow for “hospitality permits” so that hotels, bars and restaurants could “sell and serve marijuana or marijuana products in private events or venues.”
Restrictions and room for improvement
Hicks stressed in an earlier cosponsorship memo to colleagues that his omnibus bill as drafted was “not perfect,” and he urged lawmakers’ “continued input as we move through the legislative process.”
The lawmaker also specifically noted that he’s working with members of the Black Caucus “to further ensure that startups in this market space can access loan and grant programs to ensure that entrepreneurs can compete on an equal playing field.”
Meanwhile, another Missouri Republican lawmaker is again making a push to place cannabis legalization on the ballot. But some activists aren’t waiting on the legislature to take action to refer the issue to voters, with one campaign officially launching signature gathering last month for a separate reform initiative.
Under that plan, adults 21 and older could purchase, possess and cultivate cannabis for personal use. It also does not specify allowable amounts.
Another Republican lawmaker in the state, Rep. Jason Chipman (R), filed a joint resolution this session that would let voters require additional oversight over how medical cannabis tax revenue is distributed to veterans.
Separately, the group New Approach Missouri, which successfully got a medical cannabis initiative passed by voters in 2018, announced last summer its plans to put the reform proposal on the ballot through its new campaign committee Legal Missouri 2022.
The organization tried to place the issue of legalization before voters in 2020, but the COVID-19 pandemic derailed that effort.
Despite the health crisis, activists managed to collect tens of thousands of raw signatures within months, though they needed 160,199 valid signatures to qualify.
A different campaign, Fair Access Missouri, separately explored multiple citizen initiatives this year with the hopes of getting at least one on the ballot.
Another state lawmaker filed a bill late in February to decriminalize a range of drugs including marijuana, psilocybin, LSD, MDMA and cocaine.
The measure’s introduction came after a Republican Missouri legislator filed a separate bill to give residents with serious illnesses legal access to a range of psychedelic drugs like psilocybin, ibogaine and LSD through an expanded version of the state’s existing right-to-try law.
Additionally, a Missouri House committee held a hearing last month on a GOP-led bill to legalize a wide range of psychedelics for therapeutic use at designated care facilities while further decriminalizing low-level possession in general.
Nearly one out of every 10 jobs that were created in Missouri last year came from the state’s medical marijuana industry, according to an analysis of state labor data that was released by a trade group last month.
Separately, there’s some legislative drama playing out in the state over a proposal that advocates say would restrict their ability to place Constitutional amendments on the ballot.