This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 86%. (I’m a bot)
Wood is made of two basic ingredients: cellulose, which are tiny fibres, and lignin, which bonds those fibres together to give it strength.
Transparent wood could become an alternative to glass in energy efficient buildings, or perhaps coverings for solar panels in harsh environments.
If the transparent wood is made a little thicker, it would be strong enough to become part of the structure of a building, so there could be entire transparent wooden walls.